Journal of Nutrition

  • Correction to: Daniel J Hoffman, Hannah R Posluszny, Navigating Linear and Ponderal Growth in Undernourished Children, The Journal of Nutrition, 2022;152(8):1810–11.
    em Novembro 9, 2022 a 12:00 am

    Address correspondence to DJH (e-mail: dhoffman@aesop.rutgers.edu).

  • Calendar of Events
    em Novembro 9, 2022 a 12:00 am

    Due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, events around the world are being postponed or moved online. For the most current information on events listed below, please visit the meeting's website.

  • Dietary Exposure to Toxic Elements and the Health of Young Children: Methodological Considerations and Data Needs
    em Outubro 4, 2022 a 12:00 am

    ABSTRACTConcerns have been raised regarding toxic-element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) contamination of commercially available infant foods around the world. Young children are vulnerable to the effects of toxic elements, based on higher absorption levels and potentially poorer detoxification capacities. Toxic-element exposures in early life exact high societal costs, but it is unclear how much dietary exposure to these elements contributes to adverse health outcomes. Well-designed epidemiological studies conducted in different geographical and socioeconomic contexts need to estimate dietary toxicant exposure in young children and to determine whether causal links exist between toxicants in children's diets and health outcomes. This commentary outlines the methodological considerations and data needs to advance such research.

  • Vitamin D Status of Infants of Mothers with Gestational Diabetes: Status at Birth and a Randomized Controlled Trial of Vitamin D Supplementation across Infancy
    em Setembro 23, 2022 a 12:00 am

    ABSTRACTBackgroundVitamin D status and requirements of infants of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are unclear.ObjectivesThe objectives were to assess vitamin D status in infants of mothers with GDM and compare vitamin D status in response to 400 vs. 1000 IU/d vitamin D supplementation in infants born with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] <50 nmol/L.MethodsWomen with GDM delivering full-term infants (n = 98; March 2017–2019, Montreal, Canada) were surveyed for demographic and lifestyle factors. Pregnancy history was obtained from medical records. Newborn serum 25(OH)D was measured (immunoassay) and categorized as <30 (deficient) or ≥40 nmol/L (adequate). Breastfed neonates (n = 16) with serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L at birth were randomly assigned to 400 or 1000 IU/d of supplemental cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), and serum 25(OH)D was measured at baseline (≤1 mo) and 3, 6, and 12 mo of age. Groups were compared using a linear mixed-effects model and Tukey-Kramer post hoc tests.ResultsMean newborn serum 25(OH)D was 46.4 (95% CI: 43.9, 49.9) nmol/L, with 15.3% (95% CI: 8.2%, 22.4%) <30 nmol/L and 61.2% (95% CI: 51.6%, 70.9%) ≥40 nmol/L. During the trial, most infants were breastfed to 3 mo (400 IU/d: 87.5%; 1000 IU/d: 75.0%). Mean (± SEM) infant serum 25(OH)D was higher in the 1000-IU/d group at 3 mo (79.9 ± 5.9 vs. 111.5 ± 15.2 nmol/L; P = 0.0263), and although not different at 6–12 mo, was maintained at >50 nmol/L.ConclusionsMost infants of women with GDM had adequate vitamin D status in this study. In those born with serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L, vitamin D status was corrected by 3 mo of age in response to 400 or 1000 IU/d of supplemental vitamin D. Dietary guidance should continue to recommend that all women who could become pregnant take a multivitamin supplement and that breastfed infants receive 400 IU/d of supplemental vitamin D. This study and ancillary trial were registered at clinicaltrials.gov (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02563015) as NCT02563015.

  • Vitamin B-12 Requirements in Older Adults—Increasing Evidence Substantiates the Need To Re-Evaluate Recommended Amounts and Dietary Sources
    em Setembro 22, 2022 a 12:00 am

    See corresponding article on page 2483.

  • Allometric Scaling: Comparison of Interspecies Nutritional Relationships and Requirements
    em Setembro 13, 2022 a 12:00 am

    Dear Editor:

  • Reconsidering Food Prescription Programs in Relation to Household Food Insecurity
    em Setembro 13, 2022 a 12:00 am

    See corresponding article on page 2409.

  • Lycopene Affects Intestinal Barrier Function and the Gut Microbiota in Weaned Piglets via Antioxidant Signaling Regulation
    em Setembro 9, 2022 a 12:00 am

    ABSTRACTBackgroundIn pig production, early and abrupt weaning frequently causes weaning stress, which manifests as oxidative damage, barrier disruption, and digestion and absorption capacity declines. Lycopene exhibits beneficial antioxidant capacity in both humans and other animal models.ObjectivesThe present study aimed to investigate the effects of lycopene supplementation on early weaning stress in piglets and the underlying mechanisms by examining the oxidative stress state, gut intestinal barrier function, and the gut microbiota.MethodsTwenty-four 21-day-old weaned piglets [Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire); castrated males; 5.48 ± 0.10 kg initial body weight] were randomly assigned to 2 treatments. The piglets were fed a basal diet (control treatment) or a basal diet supplemented with 50 mg/kg lycopene (lycopene treatment) for 28 days. The serum lipid levels, serum and jejunum enzyme activities, jejunum morphology, mRNA and protein expression, and gut microbiota were determined.ResultsCompared with the control treatment, lycopene supplementation increased the serum catalase activity (P = 0.042; 62.0%); serum total cholesterol concentration (P = 0.020; 14.1%); and jejunum superoxide dismutase activity (P = 0.032; 21.4%), whereas it decreased serum (P = 0.039, 23.0%) and jejunum (P = 0.047; 20.9%) hydrogen peroxide concentrations. Additionally, lycopene increased the mRNA and protein expression of NFE2-like bZIP transcription factor 2 (214.0% and 102.4%, respectively) and CD36 (100.8% and 145.2%, respectively) in the jejunum, whereas it decreased the mRNA and protein expression of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (55.6% and 39.8%, respectively ). Lycopene also improved jejunal morphology, increasing the villus height (P = 0.018; 27.5%) and villus:crypt ratio (P < 0.001; 57.9%). Furthermore, it increased the abundances of potentially beneficial bacterial groups, including Phascolarctobacterium and Parasutterella, and decreased those of potentially pathogenic bacterial groups, including Treponema_2 and Prevotellaceae_unclassified.ConclusionsLycopene supplementation strengthens the intestinal barrier function and improves the gut microbiota in weaned piglets by regulating intestinal antioxidant signaling.

  • Investigating Genetic Determinants of Plasma Inositol Status in Adult Humans
    em Setembro 2, 2022 a 12:00 am

    ABSTRACTBackgroundMyo-inositol (MI) is incorporated into numerous biomolecules, including phosphoinositides and inositol phosphates. Disturbance of inositol availability or metabolism is associated with various disorders, including neurological conditions and cancers, whereas supplemental MI has therapeutic potential in conditions such as depression, polycystic ovary syndrome, and congenital anomalies. Inositol status can be influenced by diet, synthesis, transport, utilization, and catabolism.ObjectivesWe aimed to investigate potential genetic regulation of circulating MI status and to evaluate correlation of MI concentration with other metabolites.MethodsGC-MS was used to determine plasma MI concentration of >2000 healthy, young adults (aged 18–28 y) from the Trinity Student Study. Genotyping data were used to test association of plasma MI with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes, encoding inositol transporters and synthesizing enzymes, and test for genome-wide association. We evaluated potential correlation of plasma MI with d-chiro-inositol (DCI), glucose, and other metabolites by Spearman rank correlation.ResultsMean plasma MI showed a small but significant difference between males and females (28.5 and 26.9 μM, respectively). Candidate gene analysis revealed several nominally significant associations with plasma MI, most notably for SLC5A11 (solute carrier family 5 member 11), encoding a sodium-coupled inositol transporter, also known as SMIT2 (sodium-dependent myo-inositol transporter 2). However, these did not survive correction for multiple testing. Subsequent testing for genome-wide association with plasma MI did not identify associations of genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10−8). However, 8 SNPs exceeded the threshold for suggestive significant association with plasma MI concentration (P < 1 × 10−5), 3 of which were located within or close to genes: MTDH (metadherin), LAPTM4B (lysosomal protein transmembrane 4 β), and ZP2 (zona pellucida 2). We found significant positive correlation of plasma MI concentration with concentration of dci and several other biochemicals including glucose, methionine, betaine, sarcosine, and tryptophan.ConclusionsOur findings suggest potential for modulation of plasma MI in young adults by variation in SLC5A11, which is worthy of further investigation.

  • Herbs and Spices Modulate Gut Bacterial Composition in Adults at Risk for CVD: Results of a Prespecified Exploratory Analysis from a Randomized, Crossover, Controlled-Feeding Study
    em Setembro 2, 2022 a 12:00 am

    ABSTRACTBackgroundHerbs and spices are rich in polyphenolic compounds that may influence gut bacterial composition. The effect of culinary doses of herbs and spices consumed as part of a well-defined dietary pattern on gut bacterial composition has not been previously studied.ObjectivesThe aim of this prespecified exploratory analysis was to examine gut bacterial composition following an average American diet (carbohydrate: 50% kcal; protein: 17%; total fat: 33%; saturated fat: 11%) containing herbs and spices at 0.5, 3.3, and 6.6 g.d–1.2100 kcal–1 [low-, moderate-, and high-spice diets, respectively (LSD, MSD, and HSD)] in adults at risk for CVD.MethodsFifty-four adults (57% female; mean ± SD age: 45 ± 11 y; BMI: 29.8 ± 2.9 kg/m2; waist circumference: 102.8 ± 7.1 cm) were included in this 3-period, randomized, crossover, controlled-feeding study. Each diet was provided for 4 wk with a minimum 2-wk washout period. At baseline and the end of each diet period, participants provided a fecal sample for 16S rRNA gene (V4 region) sequencing. QIIME2 was used for data filtration, sequence clustering, taxonomy assignment, and statistical analysis.Resultsα-diversity assessed by the observed features metric ( P = 0.046) was significantly greater following the MSD as compared with the LSD; no other between-diet differences in α-diversity were detected. Differences in β-diversity were not observed between the diets ( P = 0.45). Compared with baseline, β-diversity differed following all diets ( P < .02). Enrichment of the Ruminococcaceae family was observed following the HSD as compared with the MSD (relative abundance = 22.14%, linear discriminant analysis = 4.22, P = 0.03) and the LSD (relative abundance  = 24.90%, linear discriminant analysis = 4.47, P = 0.004).ConclusionsThe addition of herbs and spices to an average American diet induced shifts in gut bacterial composition after 4 wk in adults at risk for CVD. The metabolic implications of these changes merit further investigation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03064932.

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