Nutrients

Nutrients Latest open access articles published in Nutrients at https://www.mdpi.com/journal/nutrients

  • Nutrients, Vol. 16, Pages 1139: Patient-Led, Technology-Assisted Malnutrition Risk Screening in Hospital: A Feasibility Study
    por Shelley Roberts em Abril 12, 2024 a 12:00 am

    Malnutrition risk screening is crucial to identify at-risk patients in hospitals; however, screening rates can be suboptimal. This study evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, and potential cost-effectiveness of patient-led, technology-assisted malnutrition risk screening. A prospective multi-methods study was conducted in a 750-bed public hospital in Australia. Patients were recruited from seven wards and asked to complete an electronic version of the Malnutrition Screening Tool (e-MST) on bedside computer screens. Data were collected on feasibility, acceptability, and cost. Feasibility data were compared to pre-determined criteria on recruitment (≥50% recruitment rate) and e-MST completion (≥75% completion rate). Quantitative acceptability (survey) data were analyzed descriptively. Patient interview data were analyzed thematically. The economic evaluation was from the perspective of the health service using a decision tree analytic model. Both feasibility criteria were met; the recruitment rate was 78% and all 121 participants (52% male, median age 59 [IQR 48-69] years) completed the e-MST. Patient acceptability was high. Patient-led e-MST was modeled to save $3.23 AUD per patient and yield 6.5 more true malnutrition cases (per 121 patients) with an incremental cost saving per additional malnutrition case of 0.50 AUD. Patient-led, technology-assisted malnutrition risk screening was found to be feasible, acceptable to patients, and cost-effective (higher malnutrition yield and less costly) compared to current practice at this hospital.

  • Nutrients, Vol. 16, Pages 1142: Pilot Study on the Prevalence of Diamine Oxidase Gene Variants in Patients with Symptoms of Histamine Intolerance
    por Duelo em Abril 12, 2024 a 12:00 am

    A retrospective pilot study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of four variants of the diamine oxidase (DAO) encoding gene (AOC1) in Caucasian adults with symptoms of histamine intolerance. In a cohort of 100 patients and 100 healthy individuals, DAO-encoding gene non-synonymous Single Nucleotide Variations (SNVs) were genotyped by multiplex single-nucleotide primer extension (SNPE) and capillary electrophoresis, and serum DAO activity was analyzed with a radio-extraction assay. The study found that 79% of individuals with symptoms of histamine intolerance harbored one or more of the four SNVs associated with reduced DAO activity. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of any variant between the group of patients and healthy controls. However, when considering the status of the alleles associated with DAO deficiency, more homozygous alleles were observed in histamine-intolerant patients. Moreover, a slightly but statistically higher percentage of patients had a high genetic risk score, reflecting the cumulative effect of carrying multiple DAO deficiency-associated gene variants and a high load of risk alleles (homozygous). A relationship between serum DAO activity and the genetic load of one specific SNV was observed, with DAO activity being significantly lower in patients homozygous for rs2052129. These results potentially support that carrying multiple DAO deficiency-associated gene variants and a high load of risk alleles (homozygous) is more relevant than the mere presence of one or more SNVs. Further studies are needed to determine the predictive value of these DAO-encoding gene variants.

  • Nutrients, Vol. 16, Pages 1140: In Vitro Inhibition of Colorectal Cancer Gene Targets by Withania somnifera L. Methanolic Extracts: A Focus on Specific Genome Regulation
    por John M. Macharia em Abril 12, 2024 a 12:00 am

    An approach that shows promise for quickening the evolution of innovative anticancer drugs is the assessment of natural biomass sources. Our study sought to assess the effect of W. somnifera L. (WS) methanolic root and stem extracts on the expression of five targeted genes (cyclooxygenase-2, caspase-9, 5-Lipoxygenase, B-cell lymphoma-extra-large, and B-cell lymphoma 2) in colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 cell lines). Plant extracts were prepared for bioassay by dissolving them in dimethyl sulfoxide. Caco-2 cell lines were exposed to various concentrations of plant extracts, followed by RNA extraction for analysis. By explicitly relating phytoconstituents of WS to the dose-dependent overexpression of caspase-9 genes and the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2, 5-Lipoxygenase, B-cell lymphoma-extra-large, and B-cell lymphoma 2 genes, our novel findings characterize WS as a promising natural inhibitor of colorectal cancer (CRC) growth. Nonetheless, we recommend additional in vitro research to verify the current findings. With significant clinical benefits hypothesized, we offer WS methanolic root and stem extracts as potential organic antagonists for colorectal carcinogenesis and suggest further in vivo and clinical investigations, following successful in vitro trials. We recommend more investigation into the specific phytoconstituents in WS that contribute to the regulatory mechanisms that inhibit the growth of colon cancer cells.

  • Nutrients, Vol. 16, Pages 1143: Characterizing Factors Associated with Excess Body Weight: A Descriptive Study Using Principal Component Analysis in a Population with Overweight and Obesity
    por Álvaro Fernández-Cardero em Abril 12, 2024 a 12:00 am

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic, making it crucial to understand how it can be effectively prevented/treated. Considering that obesity is a multifactorial condition, this article carried out a baseline cross-sectional study of the variables involved in the disorder. Eighty-four subjects with overweight/obesity were recruited. Dietary baseline information was obtained by analysing three 24 h recalls. Resting metabolic rate was measured using indirect calorimetry, physical activity was measured through accelerometry, cardiometabolic parameters were determined in blood samples and body composition via anthropometry and bioimpedance. A univariant and multivariate exploratory approach was carried out using principal component analysis (PCA). Large inter-individual variability was observed in dietetic, biochemical, and physical activity measurements (coefficient of variation ≥ 30%), but body composition was more uniform. Volunteers had an unbalanced diet and low levels of physical activity. PCA reduced the 26 analysed variables to 4 factors, accounting for 65.4% of the total data variance. The main factor was the “dietetic factor”, responsible for 24.0% of the total variance and mainly related to energy intake, lipids, and saturated fatty acids. The second was the “cardiometabolic factor” (explaining 16.8% of the variability), the third was the “adiposity factor” (15.2%), and the last was the “serum cholesterol factor” (9.4%).

  • Nutrients, Vol. 16, Pages 1141: Association between Blood Parameters of Nutritional Status and Functional Status in Extreme Longevity
    por Kupisz-Urbanska em Abril 12, 2024 a 12:00 am

    Background: The relationship between functional and nutritional status in the geriatric population remains an issue of debate and there is a gap in the knowledge regarding this field in long-lived individuals. Aim: The main aim of this study was to assess the association between selected blood parameters of nutritional status and functional status in extreme longevity. Methods: The inclusion criteria were centenarians above 100 years of age who were examined at their homes, and blood samples were collected. The study group consisted of 170 individuals (25 men and 145 women, median age 100.75 years [100.29–101.58]). Results: Total protein and albumin serum concentration was significantly lower in long-lived individuals with severe functional decline compared to individuals with preserved functional status, p = 0.000001 and p = 0.0000, respectively. Iron serum level was significantly higher in the group with preserved functional status, p = 0.04. Preserved functional status was positively correlated with total protein serum concentration (p = 0.000), albumin concentration (p = 0.000), and iron serum level (p = 0.029). A negative correlation was stated between c-reactive protein (CRP) and functional status (p = 0.032). Univariable logistic regression analysis showed that the functional status of long-lived individuals depends on total protein (OR 2.89, CI 95% [1.67–5.0]) and albumin concentrations (OR 2.34, CI 95% [1.39–3.92]). Multivariable backward stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that a total protein concentration was the only variable independently related to the preserved functional status (OR 3.2, 95% Cl [1.8–5.67]). Conclusions: In long-lived individuals, the total serum protein and albumin levels are lower in centenarians with severe functional decline, and they correlate with functional status. Total protein serum concentration is the only factor independently related to the preserved functional status in extreme longevity.

  • Nutrients, Vol. 16, Pages 1146: Effects of Acute Ingestion of Caffeine Capsules on Muscle Strength and Muscle Endurance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    por Weiliang Wu em Abril 12, 2024 a 12:00 am

    This study aimed to explore the effects of acute ingestion of caffeine capsules on muscle strength and muscle endurance. We searched the PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, Scopus, and EBSCO databases. Data were pooled using the weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval. Fourteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The acute ingestion of caffeine capsules significantly improved muscle strength (WMD, 7.09, p < 0.00001) and muscle endurance (WMD, 1.37; p < 0.00001), especially in males (muscle strength, WMD, 7.59, p < 0.00001; muscle endurance, WMD, 1.40, p < 0.00001). Subgroup analyses showed that ≥ 6 mg/kg body weight of caffeine (WMD, 6.35, p < 0.00001) and ingesting caffeine 45 min pre-exercise (WMD, 8.61, p < 0.00001) were more effective in improving muscle strength, with the acute ingestion of caffeine capsules having a greater effect on lower body muscle strength (WMD, 10.19, p < 0.00001). In addition, the acute ingestion of caffeine capsules had a greater effect in moderate-intensity muscle endurance tests (WMD, 1.76, p < 0.00001). An acute ingestion of caffeine capsules significantly improved muscle strength and muscle endurance in the upper body and lower body of males.

  • Nutrients, Vol. 16, Pages 1145: S/O/W Emulsion with CAPE Ameliorates DSS-Induced Colitis by Regulating NF-κB Pathway, Gut Microbiota and Fecal Metabolome in C57BL/6 Mice
    por Xuelin Wei em Abril 12, 2024 a 12:00 am

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has attracted much attention worldwide due to its prevalence. In this study, the effect of a solid-in-oil-in-water (S/O/W) emulsion with Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE, a polyphenolic active ingredient in propolis) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice was evaluated. The results showed that CAPE-emulsion could significantly alleviate DSS-induced colitis through its effects on colon length, reduction in the disease activity index (DAI), and colon histopathology. The results of ELISA and Western blot analysis showed that CAPE-emulsion can down-regulate the excessive inflammatory cytokines in colon tissue and inhibit the expression of p65 in the NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, CAPE-emulsion promoted short-chain fatty acids production in DSS-induced colitis mice. High-throughput sequencing results revealed that CAPE-emulsion regulates the imbalance of gut microbiota by enhancing diversity, restoring the abundance of beneficial bacteria (such as Odoribacter), and suppressing the abundance of harmful bacteria (such as Afipia, Sphingomonas). The results of fecal metabolome showed that CAPE-emulsion restored the DSS-induced metabolic disorder by affecting metabolic pathways related to inflammation and cholesterol metabolism. These research results provide a scientific basis for the use of CPAE-emulsions for the development of functional foods for treating IBD.

  • Nutrients, Vol. 16, Pages 1147: Comparative Study of Healthy Older and Younger Adults Shows They Have the Same Skin Concentration of Vitamin D3 Precursor, 7-Dehydrocholesterol, and Similar Response to UVR
    por Oktawia Borecka em Abril 12, 2024 a 12:00 am

    Vitamin D3 synthesis in human skin is initiated by solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure of precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC), but influence of age on the early stage of vitamin D3 metabolism is uncertain. We performed a prospective standardised study in healthy ambulant adults aged ≥65 and ≤40 years examining (1) if baseline skin 7DHC concentration differs between younger and older adults and (2) the impact of older age on serum vitamin D3 response to solar simulated UVR. Eleven younger (18–40 years) and 10 older (65–89 years) adults, phototype I–III, received low-dose UVR (95% UVA, 5% UVB, 1.3 SED) to ~35% of the body surface area. Biopsies were taken for 7DHC assay from unexposed skin, skin immediately and 24 h post-UVR, and blood sampled at baseline, 24 h and 7 d post-UVR for vitamin D3 assay. Samples were analysed by HPLC-MS/MS. Baseline skin 7DHC (mean ± SD) was 0.22 ± 0.07 and 0.25 ± 0.08 µg/mg in younger versus older adults (no significant difference). Baseline serum vitamin D3 concentration was 1.5 ± 1.5 and 1.5 ± 1.7 nmol/L in younger versus older adults, respectively, and showed a significant increase in both groups post-UVR (no significant differences between age groups). Thus, skin 7DHC concentration was not a limiting factor for vitamin D3 production in older relative to younger adults. This information assists public health guidance on sun exposure/vitamin D nutrition, with particular relevance to the growing populations of healthy ambulant adults ≥65 years.

  • Nutrients, Vol. 16, Pages 1144: Vitamin D and Dyslipidemia: Is There Really a Link? A Narrative Review
    por Antonella Al Refaie em Abril 12, 2024 a 12:00 am

    Nowadays, the interest in the extraskeletal effects of vitamin D is growing. In the literature, its several possible actions have been confirmed. Vitamin D seems to have a regulatory role in many different fields—inflammation, immunity, and the endocrine system—and many studies would demonstrate a possible correlation between vitamin D and cardiovascular disease. In this paper, we deepened the relationship between vitamin D and dyslipidemia by reviewing the available literature. The results are not entirely clear-cut: on the one hand, numerous observational studies suggest a link between higher serum vitamin D levels and a beneficial lipid profile, while on the other hand, interventional studies do not demonstrate a significant effect. Understanding the possible relationship between vitamin D and dyslipidemia may represent a turning point: another link between vitamin D and the cardiovascular system.

  • Nutrients, Vol. 16, Pages 1149: Health-Related Behaviours of Foreign Students Studying in Poland and Their Determinants: A Mixed-Methods Study
    por Chrzan-Rodak em Abril 12, 2024 a 12:00 am

    Educational migration benefits students and receiving countries, but universities are challenged to meet a variety of needs, such as cultural adaptation and changes in health behaviours such as dietary habits. This study aimed to assess the health-related behaviours, encompassing dietary/eating habits, among international students in Poland, while also elucidating the factors influencing these behaviours. The study consisted of two phases: (phase 1) cross-sectional research among 231 foreign students using the Fantastic Lifestyle Questionnaire (FLQ); and (phase 2) focus group interviews with 15 international students. The study was conducted in accordance with STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology) and COREQ (COnsolidated criteria for REporting Qualitative research) Checklists. It was shown that the respondents highly value health. Students’ health-related behaviours are related to their financial situation, health condition, self-assessment of their lifestyle, the importance attached to being healthy, and their country of origin. The qualitative analysis allowed us to identify (1) the barriers related to the exhibiting of health-related behaviours, (2) expectations of foreign students regarding the exhibiting of health-related behaviours, (3) changes in the health-related behaviours, and (4) factors facilitating the exhibiting of health-related behaviours. There is a need for inter-university cooperation on a strategy to promote health-promoting behaviours of foreign students studying in Poland.

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